Science and technology are important applications in man’s makes an attempt to exist, develop and get charge of his setting. At any time due to the fact the discovery of science and its application guy has persistently created endeavours to develop different systems in get to conquer mother nature, recreate the planet for his simplicity and added benefits. Proper from the primitive moments, guy invented bow and arrow, fire, hoes, knives, cutlass and so on, in get to deal with the existential difficulties mother nature possesses. Even in the current planet, the endeavours of guy are in totality geared toward the provision of foodstuff, clothing and shelter and other basic amenities for his survival.
Effectively, guy is equipped to maneuver his way about the cosmos and appear up with scientific discoveries mainly because of his purely natural endowments. Man is normally endowed with intelligence. He has the mental and purely natural capacity to forge ideas and the ability to invent. The ability to invent will make him a creator or an inventor. Therefore, the application of science to daily life manifests in the different innovations of guy vis-à-vis the technological developments in human culture. Science and technology, as a result, are synthetic innovations of guy basically set to use for his added benefits.
Man, Heritage OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.
It is pertinent to point out that science does not exist outside the house the social cultural setting of guy. Man is the creator of science and the inventor of technology. In truth, guy could be regarded as the greatest expression of his setting. The advancement of science and technology is ordinarily aimed at obtaining options to selected existential difficulties or issues of mother nature within a unique socio–cultural setting. While the mother nature of science suggests an objective application to universal difficulties and circumstances, which is a deductionist strategy to science we can not, however, deny the truth that it is at very first focused at dealing with particularistic occasions within a supplied setting.
Historically, guy has performed a important purpose in the advancement of science and technology. The human culture, no doubt, has long gone by means of a series of evolutions, transformations and as properly as revolutions at each stage of its advancement. In the early Greek period, for occasion, philosophy, art and science attracted most large distribute notice. Science and art were section of philosophy. What existed however was speculative science. This was the period where by Thales lived. He regarded as the very first notable philosopher and scientist in the western planet. He was the very first particular person to forecast an eclipse of the sunlight, which inevitably took spot in 585 B.C. His pupil, Anaximander, was the very first evolutionist scientist in the western planet. He held that all residing points originated from the sea and began to develop in the study course of time into different forms by implies of adaptation to their setting. He held that guy advanced from the animals. Anaximander also held that the earth was not flat but like a cylinder in condition and is regarded to have created the very first map in heritage. Pythagoras the mathematician, Democritus the atomists and Aristotle the best scientist in Historical Greece, all lived at this period.(Omoregbe 2002, 177)
Faith and theology took the centre stage and became the aim of curiosity in the center ages. Ethics, literature and art characterized the renaissance age. Even so, at the emergence of Francis Bacon who laid the foundation for inductive product of science, the fashionable period witnessed the advancement of empirical and experimental science. This was the period where by two notable doctrines emerged specifically, the Rene Descartes led Rationalism and the John Locke led Empiricism. But in the present-day period the centre of curiosity has progressively shifted to science and technology. (Fadaunsi 1997, 58).
It is fundamental to point out that the internal elements and as properly as man’s non complacency and his quest for expertise in every of the periods in the heritage of culture informed the shifts in the emphasis for advancement.
Technologies is what we know as used science. It is the “systematic analyze of methods for building and accomplishing points” (Gordon 1942, 20). In a like mind fashion, D.P Lauda and R.D Ryan (1971: fifty three) see technology as:
Man’s energy to cope with his physical setting equally that furnished by mother nature and t9hat established by man’s have technological deeds, these as metropolitan areas and his makes an attempt to subdue or regulate that setting by implies of his creativity and ingenuity in the use of readily available sources.
Technologies is the application of the discoveries of science to improve the circumstances of human life. It is this application that final results in innovations to improve human welfare in different sectors of human life. Disciplines like Engineering, Drugs, Details Technology, Electronics, Architecture, etc. are used sciences.(Omoregbe 2002, 179).
The heritage of technology extends as much as the ancestors of guy. Technology grows and develops hand in hand with science. Each of them compliment every other. The advancement of different applications when guy was at the primitive stage in the heritage of culture is recorded to be the very first technological revolution. By the time of the Neanderthal Man, a diploma of specialization in instrument building experienced been obtained. The Cro–Magnon homosapiens mastered some mechanical rules in pottery building and by the period of the Neolithic Man, guy experienced rather innovative in instrument building crafts.(Ndubuisi 2002, 132).
By the 16th century, Francis Bacon advocated experimental science and advised that experts need to analyze the strategies of craftsmen. Technology continued to expand with advancement of iron bridges, steam engines and textile equipment. This period witnessed the complimentary roles of science with technology. For occasion, Edison, the inventor of the very first simple lighting employed the scientific ideas of Faraday and Henry, who experienced before experimented on energy. Bell, the inventor of the telephone also formulated it on the scientific ideas of Helmholtz.(Ndubuisi 2002, 133).
There is no gainsaying the truth that the revolution that takes spot in science and technology in human culture is by no suggest feat. With the support of technology, guy has been equipped to set to use his ideas of pretty much a ideal, seamless culture with the support of different gadgets he develops for his added benefits. The planet today, particularly in this 21st century, activities economic and political growths as a outcome of scientific and technological developments. There are developments and breakthroughs in the regions of electricity and power, transportation, conversation, drugs, architecture, agriculture, industry, military technology, computer, area shuttles, biotechnology etc.
That development in science and technology has contributed to the improvement of productiveness and amplified economic expansion in human culture is an understatement. The truth is evident that science and technology has a huge conversation to productions in all sphere of human culture. The industrial revolution which occurred in Europe in the 18th century marked the starting of an economic expansion and revolution. This industrial revolution confirmed a significant social, economic, and technological adjust, which commenced with the introduction of steam electricity, fuelled mainly by coal. The technological and economic progresses recorded of the industrial revolution gained momentum with the introduction of steam powered ships, boats and railways. Even so, at the transform of the 19th century, the revolution distribute throughout Western Europe and North The usa, and inevitably impacting the rest of the planet. (Wikipedia)
The functions subsequent the improved productiveness of labour characterized by the industrial revolution which experienced distribute throughout the planet led to the ‘second industrial revolution’ starting about 1870. This second industrial revolution progressively grew to involve “the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries and the automotive industries“.(Ndubuisi 2002, 151). In truth, the increasing availability of economic petroleum solutions also reduced the usage of coal to the possible for industrialization.
It is as a result important to point out that these industrial revolutions, which led to the development of different giant industrial firms with often nearly, globalize intercontinental functions and passions, paved the way for the successive scientific technological revolution that emerged in the forties and fifties. This scientific and technological revolution is therefore evident in some international locations, like the disintegrated Soviet Union and the United States of The usa, go to to the moon during this period. Nowadays, other international locations are subsequent suite. In September 2008, China introduced her area shuttle and sent a three guy a person 7 days area delegation to the moon.
It can be found from the foregoing that the indelible mark created by the revolutions in science and technology has motivated the way guy, of the fashionable age, perceives the planet. The scientific and technological revolution that has taken the planet by storm today stemmed from the industrial revolution of the 18th century. Kolawole Ogundowole (2003: 134) notes that:
In the very first 50 percent of the twentieth century particularly during the 194s and 195s there were fundamental shifts in the structure of most sciences and in the scientific action as a outcome of major scientific and technical discoveries. This in transform led to an raise conversation of science with technology and production. Specifically, it was during that 10 years that mankind entered the period of scientific and technological revolution.
Nowadays, the scientific and technological revolution is enhancing productiveness of labour. It is modifying the total experience of social product production. It evidently has a favourable adjust around the mother nature, circumstances and contents of labour as properly as the composition of successful forces, the social division of labour, and the sectional and occupational structure of culture.
In his notion, Dryakhlov (1984: fifty five) defines scientific and technological revolution as:
The radical qualitative transformation and production forces accomplished as a outcome of the merger among the scientific and technological revolutions and the conversion of science into a direct successful power.
This indicates that as a person of the basic rules and legal guidelines of dialectics, there exists in human developmental procedures, quantitative and qualitative adjustments. This affirms the materialist assertion that all the things develops from the transformation of quantity into good quality. Therefore, scientific and technological revolution is a unique phenomenon linked with the conversion of science into direct successful power of the culture, “the radical qualitative transformation of the structure of successful forces and the adjustments in the character and content material of human labour”. (Ogundowole 2003, 138).
With the evolution and advancement of science and technology, it has become evident that this revolution has amplified production and use, particularly in the formulated international locations of the planet, past all expectations of the earlier. It is therefore attainable that poverty, starvation, and even unemployment on a huge scale would be a section of heritage. This is why V.G Afanasiev (2003: 139) notes that:
Science is the generator of ideas: technology is their product, substantive embodiment while production is the space where by the operating of technology occurs, where by individuals use scientific and technological achievements to attain their required product wealth.
At this juncture, it is pertinent to point out that the price of advancement of science and technology and its startling achievements in pretty much each sphere of human life, particularly as it improves productiveness in human culture, is not without the need of its facet consequences. Karl Marx was a person of individuals who pointed it the evil inherent in the industrialization process. Marx was not, however, from the advancement of technology. But Marx thought that the industrialization process was the evil in the dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, which led to the whole advancement of capitalism. Marx admitted that the industrialization of the culture occurred, but it only led to the polarization of culture into two principal lessons. Marx did not deny this industrialization, but was irritated at the exploitation that existed among the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. According to Marx (1972: 183):
Industrialization engenders the polarization of societies into two lessons, the bourgeois individuals who have the implies of production, i.e. the factories and the land, and the much larger sized proletarian operating course who truly conduct the labour required to extract something beneficial from the implies of production.
As a direct result of the scientific technological revolution, Marx opined that fast developments in technology left lots of qualified workers unemployed, as a person agricultural and production task after a different was mechanized. Yet again, Marx pointed out that there were flights of hundreds of thousands of unemployed individuals from rural regions or little towns to the huge metropolitan areas as a outcome of the search for white collars employment. Therefore, there was the advancement of huge city populace facilities, which truly led to unprecedented circumstances of poverty in the slums that housed workers for the new factories. At the very same time, the bourgeoisie course, at only a little fraction when compared to the proletariat’s dimensions became exceedingly wealthy.
As a solution to this situation of unequal distribution of wealth and sheer exploitation of the capitalist technique, Marx asserted that the dialectical progression, by itself, is a required precursor to the advancement of socialism and inevitably communism. Marx (1972: 209) thought that:
The industrial proletariat will inevitably develop course consciousness and revolt from the bourgeoisie, main to a additional egalitarian socialist and inevitably communist state where by the workers on their own have the implies of industrial production.
Marx may perhaps not be appropriate with his perception that capitalism, which formulated as a outcome of the industrialized technological developments, would collapse and give way to socialism and eventual communism. The fact in our planet today shows that capitalism, as from socialism, strives and technology is advancing. But functions in latest time display that development in technology has not solved most of the existential difficulties in our planet. Progress in foodstuff/agricultural technology, for occasion, have not halted the scarcity of foodstuff. Taken that famine is prevalent in most creating international locations, citizens of the technological innovative international locations are also crying fowl with the significant cost of foodstuff things in their culture. In truth the United Nations Corporations, early in the year 2008, announced that the total planet was going by means of a huge foodstuff crisis.
In the very same vein, developments and revolution in science and technology did not quit the economic recession that occurred in the United States of The usa in 2008. Irrespective of its enhancements of productiveness, scientific and technological revolution did not quit this economic recession in the U.S which led to the reduction of around 800 thousand employment among January and September, 2008. The 700 billion pounds economic bail out program sent by the erstwhile U.S president Bush and authorised by the legislature in October 2008 stays to be found in aiding the economic transform about of the place. Even the stimulus program by the latest US president Obama has not created considerable contribution to the US financial state.
In the same way, the revolution in science and technology has not stopped the demise of a range of minor small children in China around the melamine contamination of the child milk and other diary solutions. Therefore, inspite of its potentials in enhancing productiveness, its consequences on labour, human life, position reduction, could someday be devastating.
We can not deny the fantastic that the developments in science and technology have performed to guy in just about each facet of his life. We can not also rule out the truth that guy is the instrument of adjust in the scientific technological revolution. In get phrases, science and technological developments can not be created attainable without the need of guy being at the centre of its creation and innovations. This will make B.M Kedrov and S. Shukhardin (2003: 139) look at that “scientific and technological revolution is an integral phenomenon encompassing the whole ‘man–science–production’ technique”.
We ought to however emphasize that science and technology is like a double–edge sword. It has equally favourable and adverse sides. Even though its achievement has greatly enhanced the good quality of human life, its adverse facet is really devastating to human life.
Man faces critical risk of the destructive facet of technology in the regions of air pollution, pollution of seas and rivers, the depletion of the ozone layer, poisonous waste, etc. The destructive consequences of technology on mankind could also be found in the regions of the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, in unique the manufacture of chemical weapons, atomic bombs, biological and nuclear weapons.(Omoregbe 2002, 181).
The heritage of fashionable planet has revealed that strong international locations that have formulated these weapons of mass destruction are ordinarily tempted to use it on weaker international locations. The atomic weapon of mass destruction employed by the United States of The usa, during the 2nd Entire world War, around Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan is nonetheless fresh in our memory. This is why presumably most other international locations, like Iran, Korean, India etc., are creating nuclear weapons for on their own in get to protect on their own and wade off the menace of attack.
There are different other threats that the developments and revolution in science and technology pose to mankind, but these destructive components of science and technology are not adequate excuses to deny the clear that pretty much most people any place in the planet has benefited positively from it. It has enhanced man’s situation of life by building the requirements of life, like foodstuff shelter clothing transportation conversation health etc., additional simply readily available.
It is as a result our place that the favourable components that can be derived from the science and technology are of excellent worth to guy. Man ought to as a result ensure that science and technology ought to be to his support and oriented toward human affairs. Man ought to avoid the incorrect usage of technology as this may perhaps guide to his self destruction. The incorrect usage of science and technology poses additional critical threats to planet peace which guy has been seeking to achieve due to the fact the starting of the planet.
Afanasiev V,G, quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003), Nature of Man:
History and Philosophy of Science in 10 Modules, Lagos,
Proper Counsels Constrained.
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Present-day Entire world, Moscow, Progress Publishers.
Fadaunsi Ayo, (1997), Science and Technology as Guarantees and Threats to
Societies” in The Nigerian Journal of Philosophy,
Office of Philosophy, College of Lagos.
Gordon G., (1942), What Happened in Heritage, London, Oxford College Press.
Kedrov B.M and Shukhardin S. quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003),
Nature of Man: Heritage and Philosophy of Science in 10
Modules, Lagos, Proper Counsels Constrained.
Lauda, D.P and Ryan, R.D, (1971), Advancing Technologies, Iowa, W.M.C. Brown
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Technology” in Kolawole Ogundowole (ed), Man, Heritage
and Philosophy of Science: A Compendium of Readings,
Lagos, Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publihers Constrained.
Omoregbe Joseph, (2002), “Science and Technology in the Support of Man” in
Kolawole Ogundowole (ed), Man, Historyn and
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